Author: Derek Wiedenhoeft

How to Enable User Quotas in cPanel/WHM

Derek Wiedenhoeft April 27, 2017 by under Cloud Hosting 0 Comments

This tutorial will explain how to enable user quotas on Atlantic.Net’s cPanel Cloud Servers. Before we get into the details, let’s do some housekeeping:

Verified on 4/28/17 for cPanel on CentOS 7.2 64-bit

Prerequisites

    • Atlantic.Net Cloud Account

Click here to sign up for your free account!

    • SSH Program

Don’t have one? Follow the guides below for how to SSH:

From Windows
From Linux/Mac

    • Atlantic.Net cPanel Server

Follow this simple guide for how to quickly create a cPanel server:

Create cpanel


Connecting to Your cPanel Server

Now it’s time to connect to your server via SSH:

ssh [email protected][IP Address]

Once you connect to your external device, you’ll see the following which is the RSA negotiation between both devices to ensure you’re connecting to the right host:

The authenticity of host '69.28.xx.xx (69.28.xx.xx)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 75:98:a9:3d:f8:e7:48:bf:05:c9:1b:ea:xx:xx:xx:xx.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes

Check if Your System Has Quotas Enabled

mount

Find the line that says

/dev/sda1

and if there is no quota enabled, it will say

noquota...
/dev/sda1 on / type xfs (rw,relatime,attr2,inode64,noquota)
...

Edit the default Grub file

By editing the default Grub file, we can specify that the file system should have quotas enabled when the system boots up.

Edit the default Grub file with your favorite editor:

nano /etc/default/grub

Modify the following line from:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=””

to:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="rd.lvm.lv=centos/root crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet rootflags=uquota,pquota"

Note: By default, our cPanel Cloud Servers do not have swap enabled. If you have enabled it, you can prepend rd.lvm.lv=centos/swap before rd.lvm.lv=centos/root.

The resulting file should look like this:

GRUB_TIMEOUT=5
GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR="$(sed 's, release .*$,,g' /etc/system-release)"
GRUB_DEFAULT=saved
GRUB_DISABLE_SUBMENU=true
GRUB_TERMINAL_OUTPUT="console"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="rd.lvm.lv=centos/root crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet rootflags=uquota,pquota"
GRUB_DISABLE_RECOVERY="true"

Generate the New Grub Configuration File

Now that we have edited the default Grub file, we must use it to generate the Grub bootloader configuration file. First, let’s make a backup of our Grub configuration:

cp /boot/grub2/grub.cfg /boot/grub2/grub.cfg.bakgrub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

If done correctly, the system will let you know you generated the file successfully.

Generating grub configuration file ...
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-3.10.0-327.10.1.el7.x86_64
Found initrd image: /boot/initramfs-3.10.0-327.10.1.el7.x86_64.img
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-17115f95ddd92d410be8cb803e2d845d
Found initrd image: /boot/initramfs-0-rescue-17115f95ddd92d410be8cb803e2d845d.img
done

Finishing Up

In order for the new changes to take effect, let’s reboot the system:

shutdown now

Allow a minute or two for the cPanel server to reboot. Once it has rebooted, SSH back into the server.

ssh [email protected][IP Address]

Let’s check mount again to see if quota shows up now:

mount
...
/dev/sda1 on / type xfs (rw,relatime,attr2,inode64,usrquota,prjquota)
...

As we can now see, user quotas and project quotas are now enabled. You have successfully completed enabling quotas on your Atlantic.Net cPanel Cloud Server!

Your next step is to log in to your cPanel’s WHM to setup quotas: https://[your IP address]:2087. There should no longer be any notification about enabling quotas.

Note: If cPanel is telling you quotas are still not enabled for the filesystem, please run the following command in an SSH terminal:

/scripts/fixquotas

Questions? Comments? Concerns? Let us know in the comments below or email us at [email protected]!


I need HIPAA-compliant hosting. How do I get started?

So you need HIPAA-compliant hosting, and you want to know what the basics to get started are. Before we delve into the details, it helps to know the different types of companies that are concerned with HIPAA, in order to understand your relationship with the hosting provider.

 The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) defines two different types of organizations that must meet its parameters: covered entities and business associates. However, there is now a third type of organization that falls under HIPAA rules. Here is basic descriptive information for these categories from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)[i]:

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How to Install Apache on CentOS 7

Derek Wiedenhoeft March 10, 2017 by under Cloud Hosting 0 Comments
Verified and tested on March 3, 2017

Introduction

Apache is a commonly used service that allows you to serve web pages from your Cloud server. It had robust support for many different technologies by adding modules. It has become commonplace in many web workflows, like LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP).

In order to install Apache on CentOS 7, you will need to create an Atlantic.Net Cloud Server and select CentOS 7.x for the operating system. You can sign up for our service or spin up a server in our Atlantic.Net Cloud here.

Read More



A Beginner’s HIPAA Compliance Guide

Overwhelmed with HIPAA compliance? You’re not alone. Compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) is important to the covered entities and business associates that are expected by the federal government to follow the law.

However, the requirements of HIPAA and its regulatory agency, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), are not as rigid as they first may seem. We’ve detailed the broad concepts required to understand HIPAA or HIPAA compliant hosting in this article, which serves as a beginner’s HIPAA Compliance Guide.

Why HIPAA?

The healthcare privacy and security law was written to encompass the broad array of organizations for which it was intended. For that reason, the HHS website notes that “there is no single standardized program that could appropriately train employees of all entities.”[i]

Nonetheless, training is a requirement of HIPAA, so it’s necessary to find a strong beginner’s guide that can be used to train your employees on the essentials of compliance. Most of what is available online through the federal government is either aggregations of disparate pieces of information or sizable PDFs, such as the Guide to Privacy and Security of Electronic Health Information[ii] – created by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The former is a bit disorganized. While the latter can be great as course material, its 60+ pages are overkill for the purpose of an initial overview.

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Linux Fault Tolerance: Linux High Availability


IT downtime is expensive for any business.  Gartner[I] estimates that each minute of downtime costs $5,600 on average, with true costs depending on the vertical, the size of the company, and other factors.  The cost can be largely avoided, however, with systems designed for high availability and fault tolerance.

Definition: High Availability
Oracle[II] defines high availability as “computing environments configured to provide nearly full-time availability.”  A commonly held standard for high availability is “five nines,” or 99.999 percent uptime.

Not all service providers are able to meet this robust standard, which makes just over 5 minutes of downtime per year permissible.

For organizations that would approach the average downtime cost, achieving even higher availability than “five nines” is important to profitability, and even survival. Atlantic.net offers an industry-leading 100 percent network uptime guarantee, in part by leveraging Linux High Availability (Linux-HA).

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HIPAA-Compliant Cloud Hosting – Is It Possible to Protect PHI in the Cloud?

HIPAA Compliant Cloud Hosting

HIPAA Compliant Cloud Hosting

The number of organizations adopting virtualized environments continues to grow in many industries, including health care[I]. Virtualization enables network flexibility that most healthcare organizations could benefit from, but many are held back by a lack of clarity about what virtualization is, and how it relates to compliance.

A virtual environment is one in which a software layer, called a “hypervisor,” has been added to a physical server.  An operating system can then be loaded onto the hypervisor layer to create a “virtual machine” (VM), which is a software-defined server, and as such can do some things not possible with physical, hardware-dependent servers.  The hypervisor layer can determine the precise size and location of the server VMs or “instances” loaded onto it since it provides separation from the physical limitations of each piece of hardware.  As we will explore below, this can benefit organizations through increased agility and automation.

HIPAA compliance can be particularly scary for organizations, due to the implications of a breach of security inherent in health care, the complexity of the regulations, and the severity of potential fines.  Timely access to medical information can be a matter of life and death, but ensuring that information is accessible, portable, and renewable only covers Title I of the Act.  Title II, covering health care fraud and abuse, along with the enforcement-strengthening HITECH Act[II], imposes security and privacy rules on health care providers and the companies that support them. Compliance failures can result in fines of up to $1.5 million[III], and data breaches, which are increasingly common in healthcare[IV], can be even more expensive, particularly when reputational harm is considered.

Fortunately, virtualized environments can not only be HIPAA-Compliant quickly but can make compliance easier.

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What is a VPN and Do I Need One?

As we continue to rely more on technology, keeping our information safe is becoming increasingly difficult. With Wi-Fi being the standard form of network communication for most business professionals who are on the go, the need for secure data transmission has become even greater.  Public Wi-Fi locations like coffee shops, the airport, and even your home and office are not safe when sending and receiving data. According to idtheftcenter.org[i], in 2015 alone there were over 177 million cases of identity theft reported.

How do hackers access my data?

The two most popular ways of someone accessing your data over Wi-Fi are sniffing and rogue access points[ii].) Sniffing is when another user nearby captures the data your computer transmits over Wi-Fi, and then reassembles it to look for passwords or other unencrypted account information. The aptly named rogue access point is where someone will create a Wi-Fi hotspot that appears to be legitimate, like “Free Starbucks Wi-Fi,” or “Airport Public Wi-Fi,” and then waits for users to connect to it. Once the user is attached to the hacker’s hotspot, the users’ data transmission is all captured on the hacker’s machine. The hacker can then use specialized programs to reassemble the packet capture to reveal what the user(s) was looking at and if any sensitive information or passwords were used. One of the most effective solutions is to encrypt the traffic going between your infrastructure and your home computer/laptop, which is why VPNs were developed.

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RAID 10 (RAID 1+0) – What Is It & Should I Use It?

Derek Wiedenhoeft December 21, 2016 by under Cloud Hosting 0 Comments

Utilization of RAID 10 in a server provides an increase of disk capabilities while simultaneously providing redundancy and preventing system failure.

What is RAID?

RAID is an acronym that stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, depending on what specialist you ask. The term “independent” is arguably more appropriate, as RAID arrays may sometimes be made with extremely expensive disks.

In layman’s terms, RAID is a method of configuring two or more hard drives to work as a single unit with differing levels of redundancy and allowing better fault tolerance. “A fault-tolerant design enables a system to continue its intended operation, possibly at a reduced level, rather than failing completely, when some part of the system fails.”[i]

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