Linux

What Linux Distro Should You Use? The Best Linux Distributions

What are the best Linux distributions? Let’s look at four distros that we feel are the best available for general needs – secure, stable, and reliable.

  • About Linux
  • Best Linux Server Distros for You
  • Flavor #1 – Ubuntu
  • Flavor #2 – CentOS
  • Flavor #3 – Debian
  • Flavor #4 – Fedora
  • Deploying Your Linux Server

About Linux

As an operating system (OS), Linux is software that allows programs and the user to access the computer’s hardware and perform tasks. The OS sends directions from a program to the central processing unit (CPU), for example. Once the assigned work is completed, the CPU gets the data to the OS for transfer back to the program. The OS is like a mediator.

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Turning on the LAMP: The Clapper for Developers

Sam Guiliano November 10, 2015 by under VPS Hosting 0 Comments

What is LAMP, and how can you use it to light the way of development with a simple hand motion?

  • What is LAMP?
  • Platform vs. Stack
  • Operating System – Linux
  • Webserver – Apache
  • Database – MySQL
  • Scripting Language – PHP
  • One-Click LAMP: The Clapper for Developers

Clap On! Clap Off! You may remember the jingle for the “as seen on TV” product The Clapper, a sound-activated electrical switch that captivated the imagination with its simple brilliance. Just as you can turn on a lamp with that simple hand motion of bringing your hands together, you can turn on a LAMP Hosting with the simple hand motion of clicking a mouse button.

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A Tale of Stack-Worthiness: The Rise of Nginx

Nginx has accrued increasingly impressive market share in recent years. What’s its story?

  • WordPress Developer Switches to LEMP
  • Nginx is Not Slowing its Pace
  • How the Web is Being Won
  • Growth of Nginx & LEMP to Fuel Your Own Project

WordPress Developer Switches to LEMP

The LAMP stack (open source development environment using Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) has always been incredibly popular among developers, but in the past few years, that has started to change. What people are starting to use instead is called a LEMP stack, which replaces the Apache web server with a Russian little-engine-that-could competitor, Nginx (pronounced “Engine X” – hence the E in LEMP). Keep in mind that the code for Nginx is free, open-source, and is identified by the official site as both NGINX and nginx.

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Cómo Instalar o Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) No Debian 8 ou 8.1, Servidor Nuvem ou VPS

Brendan Bonner August 1, 2015 by under VPS Hosting 0 Comments

Verificado e Testado 04/26/2015

Introdução

Nesse Guia de Procedimentos, nós te guiaremos para instalar o LAMP no seu Debian 8 ou 8.1, Servidor Nuvem ou VPS. LAMP é simplesmente um pacote de software que consiste de 4 componentes. Linux é a base da plataforma; todos os componentes estão instalados dentro do ambiente Linux. Nesse caso, nós usaremos o Debian 8 ou 8.1 para Linux OS. Será usado o Apache para serviço na web. MySQL será usado para o gerenciamento do banco de dados, e o PHP será a linguagem de programação. Tudo junto forma-se o LAMP, que também é chamado de LAMP Stack.

Pré-Requisitos

Um servidor com o Debian 8 instalado. Se você ainda não tiver um servidor, você pode visitar a nossa página de Hospedagem de Nuvem aqui e gerar um novo servidor dentro de 30 segundos.

Instalando o LAMP no Debian 8, 8.1

Primeiro instalaremos o Apache. Apache é um servidor de rede de código aberto e é o servidor de rede mais popular do mundo.

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Cómo Instalar De Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP, (LAMP) Con Debian 8

Ariel Beltre June 9, 2015 by under VPS Hosting 0 Comments

Introducción

En este artículo, le mostraremos como instalar LAMP en un servidor cloud con Debian 8. LAMP es simplemente un paqute de software que consiste de 4 componentes. Linux es la base de la plataforma; todos los componentes son instalados en el entorno Linux. En este caso, vamos a usar Debian 8 para el sistema operativo Linux. Vamos a usar Apache para el servicio web. MySQL se utilizará para la gestión de bases de datos, y PHP sera como el lenguaje de programacion. En total esto forma LAMP, que tambien se llama un LAMP stack.

Requisitos Previos

Un servidor con Debian 8 instalado. Si usted no tiene un servidor ya, usted puede visitar nuestra pagina de VPS hosting y configurar un nuevo servidor en menos de 30 segundos.

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Compassion and Humanity: Ubuntu LTS for Linux SSD Cloud

Developed and managed in conjunction with the open source community and Canonical, Ubuntu is one of the most popular distributions of the Linux operating system. The name itself is a nod to the synergistic, “share and share alike” philosophy that is considered a pillar of the open source movement. Ubuntu is a word used in Xhosa and Zulu that is roughly translated as humanity, compassion, or the whole is better than the sum of its parts.  Atlantic.Net offers several Ubuntu distribution in one of our Linux cloud hosting options.

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How to: Linux General – IPTables in General

Brett Haines February 5, 2015 by under VPS Hosting 0 Comments
Verified and Tested 02/16/2015

Introduction

IPTables is a firewall that is either installed already or can be installed onto any of our Linux Distributions for our Cloud service. IPTables is used to configure packet filter rule chains and enforce the built-in or user-defined rule chains for your server. IPTables has main components to it involving Tables, Targets, and Options.

 

Tables

Tables in IPTables are used to separate packets into their matching category. The table sorting depends on modules that your system has loaded and where the packet matches. Right now, there are five distinct tables for use. They are filter, nat, mangle, raw, and security. For the most part, basic IPTables use will just involve the filter table. If you are doing internal routing or more complicated networking, you will focus on using the other tables as well. This page will be going over only filter type rules.

filter – This is the basic table as was mentioned and is typically the defaulted table. This table consists of the rule chains ACCEPT, FORWARD, OUTPUT.

nat – This table is used for packets that will be creating new connections. Like routing a public IP to a private IP. It consists of the rule chains PREROUTING, POSTROUTING, and OUTPUT.

mangle – This table is used for altering the way packets are handled. It consists of the rule chains INPUT, FORWARD, OUTPUT, PREROUTING, and POSTROUTING.

raw – This table is used for configuring exemptions from connection tracking with the NOTRACK target. It consists of PREROUTING and OUTPUT.

security – This table is for MAC (Mandatory Access Control) rules. It consists of INPUT, FORWARD, and OUTPUT

 

Targets

Targets are defined as the value to the rule chain you are creating. They can contain the values ACCEPT, DROP, QUEUE, or RETURN. These values tell the rule how to proceed with a packet that matches the rule.

ACCEPT – This is pretty straightforward and means to allow the packet through to your server.

DROP – Also pretty straightforward in that it means to deny the packet through to your server.

QUEUE – This target means to pass the packet into userspace so a user may define what to do with it.

RETURN – This target stops the processing of the current chain and tells it to resume processing at the previous chain’s next rule.

 

Options

There is a ton of options available for IPTables use. We will list some of the more common ones you will see.

-A, –append – Appends your rule to a chain.

-L, –list [chain] – This will list all the rules in the chain that you specify. If you don’t supply a chain, it will list all the rules.

-F, –flush [chain] – This will remove any chains and rules in the given chain. If you don’t provide a chain, it will remove all rules and chains currently running.

-h – This provides an output of all the options that you may do.

-p, –protocol protocol – This is the packets protocol. These can be TCP, UDP, UDPlite, ICMP, ESP, AH, SCTP, all, number equivalents to these, or begin with a ! to invert the protocol check.

-s, –source address[/mask][,…] – A source address. Can be the IP, IP range via netmask, network name, or hostname.

-d, –destination address[/mask][,…] – A destination address. Same format as –s.

-m, –match match – An extension module that tests for a property.

–dport[s] [port#][,…] – A port you are looking for. –dports is used to specify more than one which are separated by comma. When using –dports make sure to set -m as multiport. To specify a port range, use a : such as 1000:1100 which would be ports 1000-1100.

-j, –jump target – This is the option that allows you to specify the target for your rule.

-i, –in-interface name – Specifies an interface that the packet should be received on.

-o, –out-interface name – Specifies an interface that the packet will leave on.

-v, –verbose – It makes the list command show interface names, rule options, and any masks. Also shows packet and byte counters.

 

Usage and Examples

Here we will show some basic usage and examples. A typical IPTables rule will tend to follow these formats. Make sure all your rules are done above COMMIT as this is used to end a table. Rules for another table will follow their own end COMMIT.

For allow established traffic:

-A INPUT -m match –state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

In use this would be:

-A INPUT -m state –state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

For allowing specific port[s].

-A INPUT -p protocol -m match –dport port -j ACCEPT

In use, an example would be:

-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp –dport 80 -j ACCEPT

Or

-A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport –dports 80,443 -j ACCEPT

This would allow web traffic through on port 80 (in the second example, port 443 too.) That’s not all you can do. You can also add the following like in the below examples.

-A INPUT -s IPADDR -p tcp -m tcp –dport 22 -j ACCEPT

This allows only the IP address (IPADDR) that you specify through on your port 22 (ssh.) You can use any form of IP addresses that the -s option allows.

-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp –dport 22 -j DROP

Following in step with the above example, this will drop any and all TCP traffic traveling to you SSH port. It is a good rule of thumb to always have any DROP rules at the very bottom of your list of ACCEPT rules in the chain. For example:

-A INPUT … -j ACCEPT

-A INPUT … -j ACCEPT

-A INPUT … -j ACCEPT

-A INPUT … -j DROP

-A FORWARD … -j ACCEPT

-A FORWARD … -j ACCEPT

-A FORWARD … -j ACCEPT

-A FORWARD … -j DROP

-A OUTPUT … -j ACCEPT

-A OUTPUT … -j ACCEPT

-A OUTPUT … -j ACCEPT

-A OUTPUT … -j DROP

You can also define the targets (like ACCEPT or DROP) up at the top of your IPTables for default behavior. When it’s a new install of IPTables, you always see the default behavior (defined at the top where it lists INPUT, FORWARD, and OUTPUT) as ACCEPT. A good rule of thumb for security is to change it to DROP and only make rules for the ports or traffic that you want to allow. Only change it though if you are sure you have made the exceptions you need.

Also at the top of a table, you can define your own targets. Let’s say you have the following at the top of your IPTables:

*filter

:INPUT DROP [0:0]

:FORWARD DROP [0:0]

:OUTPUT DROP [0:0]

COMMIT

Now, as we have blocked everything, let’s start with adding our own targets like:

*filter

:INPUT DROP [0:0]

:FORWARD DROP [0:0]

:OUTPUT DROP [0:0]

:APP – [0:0]

:MyNewTarget – [0:0]

COMMIT

Now you can create a custom type rule chain like the below.

*filter

:INPUT DROP [0:0]

:FORWARD DROP [0:0]

:OUTPUT DROP [0:0]

:APP – [0:0]

:MyNewTarget – [0:0]

 

-A APP -p tcp -m multiport –dports 30:40,50:80 -j ACCEPT

-A INPUT -s IPADDR -j MyNewTarget

 

-A MyNewTarget -j APP

COMMIT

Now what we have done in the above is create new targets, APP and MyNewTarget and assign to them options and targets. What the last rule (above COMMIT) does, is if the connection comes from your source IP and is attempting to hit ports 30-40 or 50-80, allow it through! It’s all defined in the chain above. This level of customization isn’t truly needed unless you are using multiple hosts or using ports you find yourself repeating and want more of a shorthand or “shortcut” to writing out rules. For example, any new rule you need coming from that source IP, you can now just use MyNewTarget.

All in all, IPTables provides a lot of customization of rules and allows you to handle how your server handles incoming, outgoing, and internal traffic. Some rules can be confusing and hard to follow, but there is no doubt to the helpfulness they provide to server stability.


The Entrepreneurial Era of Cloud Computing

Kent Roberts December 4, 2014 by under PCI Hosting 0 Comments

This piece suggests a Linux cloud hosting VPS (virtual private server) in order to accelerate your company with cloud computing. However, what’s really exciting about the cloud is not specific solutions but the way in which its speed and agility will change all of our lives, so we will explore that topic as well. Here’s our basic outline:

  • Introduction: Scope of the cloud
  • Wall Street Journal: The entrepreneurial era
  • Atlantic.Net: Linux VPS hosting in the cloud.

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Windows VPS vs. Linux VPS – Comparing Cloud Based Server OS

Eddie November 27, 2012 by under VPS Hosting 0 Comments

One of the most important decisions to make when choosing a virtual private server (VPS) is whether a Linux or Windows-based option is right for you.  While IT professionals often swear by one or another, these two systems are aimed at meeting the requirements of two different types of users.  Windows and Linux are both very different operating systems, with Linux being an open source operating system that is free to use and Windows a commercial operating system.  While many basic functions are shared between the two, the prices and uses of a Windows cloud hosting VPS and a Linux VPS are very different.

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